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Cell cycle

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The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy Cell Cycle, Recent Discoveries, Cell Biology, Machine Design, Genetics, Dna, Insight, Medical, Activities

The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy

The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is the largest known complex that catalyses ubiquitylation reactions and has key functions in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Recent studies have shed light on how APC/C activity is controlled and how it recognizes a multitude of substrates.

The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Apc, Blood, Medicine, Activities, Create, Medical

The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time

The spindle-assembly checkpoint is a safety device that monitors the attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores and ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Molecular studies are finally starting to reveal the mechanisms of checkpoint activation and inactivation.

The closed complex is recruited to kinetochores thanks to the ROD (rough (zeste (RZZ) complex and is regulated by the multipolar kinase. activates what is probably the rate-limiting step of MCC formation, the binding of open to Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Biology, Blood, Activities, Check, Paths, Ap Biology

The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time

The spindle-assembly checkpoint is a safety device that monitors the attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores and ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Molecular studies are finally starting to reveal the mechanisms of checkpoint activation and inactivation.

Ubiquitin ligases: cell-cycle control and cancer Cell Cycle, Pa School, Cancer, Activities, Apc, Journals, Education, Journal Art, Onderwijs

Ubiquitin ligases: cell-cycle control and cancer

Several ubiquitin ligases are altered in cancer. These proteins are crucial for the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of cell-cycle proteins, ensuring regulated progression through the cycle. Understanding the mechanistic roles of these ligases is therefore of great importance.

The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time Cell Cycle, Cell Biology, Mitosis, Arrow Keys, Close Image, Aurora, Blood, Education, Space

The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time

The spindle-assembly checkpoint is a safety device that monitors the attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores and ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Molecular studies are finally starting to reveal the mechanisms of checkpoint activation and inactivation.

Telophase HeLa (cancer) cells expressing Aurora B-EGFP (green) Deconvolution. annual Nikon Small World competition place photography winner. Paul D. Andrews, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UK Nikon Small World, Photo Macro, Aurora, Micro Photography, Photography Terms, Space Photography, Popular Photography, Microscopic Photography, Microscopic Images

Two human cancer cells seen just before they divide into four cells, viewed at 100x magnification.

Evolution and Function of the Mitotic Checkpoint Cell Cycle, Scaffolding, Evolution, Protein, Blood, Staging

Evolution and Function of the Mitotic Checkpoint

Unattached kinetochores recruit Mad1, Bub1 (B1), BubR1/Mad3 (BR1), Bub3 (B3), and the RZZ complex (RZZ) either directly or indirectly via the MC scaffold Knl1/Zwint-1 (Z). The combined actions of these proteins and protein complexes promotes conversion of O-Mad2 (O) into C-Mad2 (C) through an intermediate state (I) after its dimerization with Mad1-bound C-Mad2.

In human cells, CENP-A-containing nucleosomes, as well as CENP-T-containing complexes and CENP-C, interact with centromeric DNA. As yet, no sequence-specific interactions have been identified at the human kinetochore. Further conserved CCAN proteins (grey) are found at the centromere throughout the cell cycle. These form the base upon which the outer kinetochore assembles, Cell Cycle, The Cell, Conservation, Dna, Protein, Ballet Flats, Blood, Base, Grey

T time for point centromeres

The diverse nature of eukaryotic centromere structure has led to a prevailing view that the kinetochore–chromatin interface is fundamentally different in distinct species. Two studies now challenge this dogma with the identification of budding yeast homologues of the vertebrate centromere DNA-binding proteins CENP-T and CENP-W.

(a) Electron microscopy reveals distinct plates within the kinetochore, and immunoelectron microscopy has localized molecules to the regions indicated. The dynamic plus ends of kinetochore microtubules interact with the outer corona and outer plate Cell Cycle, Biology, Blood, Plates, Corona, Licence Plates, Dishes, Griddles, Dish

IFOM Campus -

IFOM-IEO Campus Research program Andrea Musacchio Molecular basis of chromosome segregation

Conversion of to a potent inhibitor by the unattached kinetochore. bound to recruits monomeric molecules from the cytosol. Once dimerized to is converted to released, and able to interact with Cell Cycle, Thing 1, Biology, Bar Chart, Medical, Books, Reading, Libros, Medicine

[Frontiers in Bioscience 13, 3606-3620, May 1, 2008]

This is a journal and virtual library useful to scientists, physicians and patients. The site contains medical and biology information as articles, databases, books, lectures and more. The site also contains the forms to search the most useful sites on the Web.

he MCC (mitotic checkpoint complex) is formed inactivating the APC/C. This changes when the last kinetochore becomes attached to microtubuli. Now, Cdc20 activates the APC/C which in turn ubiquitinylates the cohesin inhibitor securin. This leads to cohesin degradation, initiating sister chromatide separation. In early G1, instead of Cdc20, Cdh1 activates the APC/C to maintain mitotic cyclin destruction. Cell Cycle, Apc, Destruction, Sisters

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he MCC (mitotic checkpoint complex) is formed inactivating the APC/C. This changes when the last kinetochore becomes attached to microtubuli. Now, Cdc20 activates the APC/C which in turn ubiquitinylates the cohesin inhibitor securin. This leads to cohesin degradation, initiating sister chromatide separation. In early G1, instead of Cdc20, Cdh1 activates the APC/C to maintain mitotic cyclin destruction.

Cubism and the cell cycle: the many faces of the APC/C Cell Cycle, Dna Replication, Cell Biology, Mitosis, The Cell, Apc, Science, Free

Cubism and the cell cycle: the many faces of the APC/C

The APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex, also known as the cyclosome) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ensures temporal order of the cell cycle by degrading different cell cycle regulators at specific time points. Recent studies have provided insights into how the APC/C recognizes its substrates and how it is itself regulated.

 A centromere is a constricted region of DNA on a chromosome. A kinetochore is a protein complex. Cell Cycle, Electron Microscope, Under The Lights, The Cell, Apc, Definitions, Biology, Two By Two, Sisters

Spindle checkpoint - In S. cerevisiae, Pds1p (also known as securin) regulates sister chromatids cohesion, because it binds and inhibits the protease Esp1p (separin or separase). When anaphase onset is triggered, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C or Cyclosome) degrades securin. Securin degradation releases the protease Esp1p/separase, which degrades the cohesin rings that link the two sister chromatids, therefore promoting sister chromatids separation.[41]

Blocking cell division with two synergistic chemical inhibitors Cell Cycle, Mitosis, The Cell, Biotechnology, Division, Image King, Science, Scientists

No Exit

No Exit Blocking cell division with two synergistic chemical inhibitors During mitosis, the cell copies and then lines up chromosomes properly so each daughter cell has a complete set. Before this can happen, the cell must dispose of certain proteins. Scientists are using small molecules to study this degradation pathway. Image: King Lab