Raoul Hausmann Friends with Schwitters, Hausmann abandoned painting in 1923 and centred his work on photography. He invented an apparatus known as the Optophone, which turned kaleidoscopic forms into music. As well as sound poetry, Hausmann’s oeuvre contains photograms, rayograms and pictograms.
‘John Heartfield (1891–1968) is the anglicized name of the German photomontage artist Helmut Herzfeld. Heartfield developed photomontage into a form of political and artistic expression. His photomontages satirising Adolf Hitler and the Nazis often subverted Nazi symbols such as the swastika in order to undermine their propaganda message.