Runes-letters modified from Phoenician alphabet. Runic was often written without spaces between words & where 2 of the same letter sat beside each other only one would be used. It was written both from left to right & right to left. It was mainly used to label items with the owner's name & was considered magical as most people were illiterate & did not understand the concept of symbols representing sounds. This also led to their use in fortune telling.
The great sea expeditions of the Viking Age - The basis of the great sea expeditions undertaken by the Vikings was ship technology. The Viking ship was a piece of high technology based upon hundreds of years of development and experience. It was distinguished by its narrow keel and shallow draught. This made even the largest ocean-going warships suitable for sailing onto beaches and up rivers. Such tactics enabled, for example, the siege of Paris to be carried out in the year 885.