MCAT

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Plane-polarized light= light where electric field of all waves oriented in same direction (electric field vectors are parallel). Unpolarized light has random electric field line orientation ex: sunlight and light bulbs. Enantiomers (=non-superimposable mirror images) have opposite specific rotation (=chiral centers rotate polarized light clockwise or counterclockwise by specific # of ° relative to its concentration.
Know “position of dark fringes” equation. Interference= process of additive displacement when waves interact. Can be constructive (=brighter when waves are synchronous) or destructive (=darker when waves are asynchronous). Single-slit system= light spreads out, but no interference or fringes, unless lens present, then there is both constructive and destructive interference resulting in fringes). Double-slit system= interference, so fringes. Experiment requires monochromatic light.
Know top right “position of dark fringes in slit lens setup” equation. Each "| |" represents one full λ. Diffraction= spreading out of light as it passes through a narrow opening or around an obstacle. Bright fringes (=maxima) are 1/2-way b/t dark fringes (=minima).

Kaplan MCAT Physics

65 Pins
Long chain fatty acid + lye (NaOH or KOH (Strong Bases)) makes salt known as =Soap. Can solvate non polar organic compounds in (aq.) b/c have non polar tail and polar carboxylate heads. Form Micelle where polar heads face out.
Condensation of 2 carboxylic acids. parent-oic acid to parent-oic anhydride. ex: ethanoic anhydride has 2 ethyl grps. not just 1!
Reduction= COOH to 1'OH via LiAlH4 b/c NaBH4 is weak AF. Decarboxylation= removal of COOH.

Kaplan MCAT Organic Chemistry

51 Pins
Know equations for finding membrane potential (Vm)= normal cell resting potential -40mV through -80mV and +35mV during depolarization. Maintaining resting potential requires energy b/c ions lost through leak channels. Na+/K+ ATPase Pump= maintains potential by pumping out 3 Na+ per 2 K+ in (net neg. resting potential b/c loose 1 +ion). Nernst gives membrane potential from intra- + extracellular [of various ions]. GHKV equation specific for cell under Na+/K+ pump conditions. Cl- inverted b/c (-).
Endocytosis= invaginate and engulf particles into cell vesicle after they bing to receptors (=Vesicle Coating Proteins). 2 Types: 1)Pinocytosis= engulf fluid + dissolved particles. 2)Phagocytosis= engulf large solids. Exocytosis= secretory vesicles fuse with membrane to excrete things ex: important w/ synaptic vesicles in neurons.
Outer is highly permeable to even ions and small proteins. Inter-membrane space= space b/t mitochondrial double membrane. Inner-mitochondrial membrane= restricted permeability contains numerous infoldings (=cristae that ^SA for integral proteins of the ETC and ATP Synthesis. Mitochondrial matrix= site of citric acid (Krebs) cycle produces high energy e- carriers for ETC. Mitochondria has lots of cardiolipin instead of cholesterol in membranes.

Kaplan MCAT Biochemistry

73 Pins
Equation will be provided! When forced together (from ^P, dec. V, and/or dec. T) gases start deviating from ideal (have particle volume and IFs), but we can still approximate w/ ideal gas law. a and b are specific constants that vary for each gas.
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases= says that the kinetic energy of gas particle is proportional to the temperature. RMS speed= tells average kinetic energy of particles, which defines average speed.
Larger particle mass = slower speed (diffusion). Smaller particle mass = faster speed (diffusion). Effusion = when gas moves through small hole under pressure. Diffusion = when gases mix w/ one another. Rate 1 is diffusion rate of gas 1 and rate 2 is diffusion rate of gas 2.

Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry

45 Pins
Lymph vessels bigger toward center where join Thoracic Duct= which puts fluid back into blood. Lymph Nodes= small bean structures along lymph vessels contain lymph channel, artery + vein. Allow immune sys. space to work. B/c hydrostatic pressure (push out) greater than oncotic pressure (pull in), fluid escapes blood as lymph. Edema= lymph fluid tissue buildup. Lacteals= lymph vessels in SI, package fat into chylomicrons for blood delivery. Germinal centers= Lymph nodes where B-cells proliferate.
Self-Antigens= proteins and carbs present on every cell in human body to tell self from non-self. Autoimmunity= failure to recognize this. Negative selection in Thymus during T-cell maturation and B-cell maturation in bone marrow tries to prevent. Hypersensitivity Reaction= Autoimmune rxns. and allergic rxns. where body misidentifies threat vs non-threat. Glucocorticoids= modified cortisol w/ immunosuppressive (anti-autoimmunity) properties. Active= b-cells stim. to make Ig. Passive= Ig transfer

Kaplan MCAT Biology

59 Pins
some calculations are shown in the form of an electronic circuit with two different types of voltages
Nernst Equation and Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz Voltage Equation
Know equations for finding membrane potential (Vm)= normal cell resting potential -40mV through -80mV and +35mV during depolarization. Maintaining resting potential requires energy b/c ions lost through leak channels. Na+/K+ ATPase Pump= maintains potential by pumping out 3 Na+ per 2 K+ in (net neg. resting potential b/c loose 1 +ion). Nernst gives membrane potential from intra- + extracellular [of various ions]. GHKV equation specific for cell under Na+/K+ pump conditions. Cl- inverted b/c (-).
a diagram of the inside of an animal cell
Lymphatic System
Lymph vessels bigger toward center where join Thoracic Duct= which puts fluid back into blood. Lymph Nodes= small bean structures along lymph vessels contain lymph channel, artery + vein. Allow immune sys. space to work. B/c hydrostatic pressure (push out) greater than oncotic pressure (pull in), fluid escapes blood as lymph. Edema= lymph fluid tissue buildup. Lacteals= lymph vessels in SI, package fat into chylomicrons for blood delivery. Germinal centers= Lymph nodes where B-cells proliferate.
two posters with the words active and passive in different ways, one has an image of a
IMP Hypersensitivity Reactions and Immunization
Self-Antigens= proteins and carbs present on every cell in human body to tell self from non-self. Autoimmunity= failure to recognize this. Negative selection in Thymus during T-cell maturation and B-cell maturation in bone marrow tries to prevent. Hypersensitivity Reaction= Autoimmune rxns. and allergic rxns. where body misidentifies threat vs non-threat. Glucocorticoids= modified cortisol w/ immunosuppressive (anti-autoimmunity) properties. Active= b-cells stim. to make Ig. Passive= Ig transfer
a diagram of the structure of an animal's body with different colors and names
IMP Antibody Structure
Antibodies have 2 identical light chains and 2 identical heavy chains held together via disulfide bonds. On tip of variable region (=tip of Y) is the Antigen-binding region= contains specific code (found by hypermutation= rapid code finding through trail and error) that is then clonally selected= type chosen for binding to antigen. Rest of antibody= constant region. Isotype switching= changing Ig isotypes (IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgD).
two different types of cell phones with the same number of cells on them, and one type
IMP Adaptive Immune System
Humoral Immunity= antibody (Ig) production via B-cell + binding to specific microbe antigen. For Igs secreted into body fluid: 1)Bound Ig may attract other WBCs to phagocytize(=opsonization) 2)Igs cause pathogen clumping for phagocytosis (=agglutination). 3)Igs block pathogen cell binding by surrounding it(neutralization). For cell-surface Igs: Antigen binding to B-cell activates it for producing plasma + memory cells, unlike antigen binding to mast cell Igs w/ degranulation= histamine release.
two diagrams showing the different stages of nematia
MHC Classes
Major histocompatibility complex molecules are joined with antigens. The MHC–antigen complex then goes to the cell surface to display the antigen. This allows the immune system to monitor the health of cells. 1) MHC-I is in all nucleated cells and presents endogenous antigens (b/c binds antigen from inside the cell ex: virus hijacked machinery to make own proteins). 2) MHC-II is in antigen-presenting cells and presents exogenous antigens (b/c binds antigens originating from outside the cell).
an info sheet describing the different types of cell phones and what they are used for
Innate (non-adaptive) Immune System
Innate: 1)skin(integument)= physical barrier w/ defensins (= antibacterial) and antimicrobial sweat. 2)mucocillary escalator 3)lysozyme in tears + saliva 4)stomach acid 5)Complements= kill bacteria in blood by punching holes in cell walls (destabilize osmosis). Activated by: 1)Classical= requires antibody binding to pathogen 2)Alternative= no antibodies. 5)Interferons= slows viral production + released by infected cell to warn others to dec. protein production and perm. Also ^MHC presentation.
the structure of an animal cell, labeled in different colors and sizes with labels on each side
Granulocytes vs Agranulocytes
Granules are in cytoplasm and contain toxic enzymes released by exocytosis. Agranulocytes include: 1)Monocytes= phagocytic cells that turn into Macrophages when leave blood stream into tissue where called specifically: Microglia in CNS, Langerhans cells in skin and osteoclasts in bone. 2)Lymphocytes= are only innate immune system cells (for mcat purposes). They include B-cells and T-cells.
an animal cell diagram with different cells
WBCs
All come from Hematopoietic Stem Cell. Innate Immunity= done w/o learning. Adaptive Immunity= learning occurs to recognize and respond to specific antigens.
an animal cell diagram shows the different cells in its body and how they interact with each other
Immune System
2 Types: 1)Innate (nonspecific) always active 2)Adaptive (specific) (T-cells (cell-mediated= b/c coordinate immune sys. + directly kill infected cells) and B-cells (humoral= b/c make antibodies that dissolve and act in blood)) slower but specific and can develop memory for faster re-exposure response. Bone marrow produces all WBCs for immune system. B-cells mature here. T-cells mature in Thymus by heart. Gut assoc. lymph tissue (GALT)= adenoids+tonsils (head), Peyer's patches (SI) + appendix.
the cell membrane is attached to an excitular fluid that contains cytoplasm
IMP Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Endocytosis= invaginate and engulf particles into cell vesicle after they bing to receptors (=Vesicle Coating Proteins). 2 Types: 1)Pinocytosis= engulf fluid + dissolved particles. 2)Phagocytosis= engulf large solids. Exocytosis= secretory vesicles fuse with membrane to excrete things ex: important w/ synaptic vesicles in neurons.
a diagram of the cell membrane and its cellular respirators are shown in this image
Mitochondrial Membranes
Outer is highly permeable to even ions and small proteins. Inter-membrane space= space b/t mitochondrial double membrane. Inner-mitochondrial membrane= restricted permeability contains numerous infoldings (=cristae that ^SA for integral proteins of the ETC and ATP Synthesis. Mitochondrial matrix= site of citric acid (Krebs) cycle produces high energy e- carriers for ETC. Mitochondria has lots of cardiolipin instead of cholesterol in membranes.
the diagram shows two different types of transport
IMP Osmosis (Passive) and Active Transport Types
Know picture concepts and equation. Osmosis is passive(simple diffusion for H2O). Hypotonic Solution= [cell solute] higher than [surrounding solution] (water goes into cell). Hypertonic solution= opposite. Isotonic solution= equal so no net movement. Osmotic pressure(π)= "sucking pressure" dependent on quantity not quality of dissolved particles (=colligative property) (=Van't Hoff Factor (i) ex: NaCl = 2). 2 types of Active Transport: Primary and Secondary.
the structure of an active transport system is shown in this diagram, and shows how it works
IMP Membrane Transport
Passive Transport= -ΔG (large ΔS) spontaneous + no energy required (uses [grad.]) 3 Types: 1)Simple diff.= [high]>[low] if perm. to mem. (small nonpolar) 2)Osmosis= simple diff. w/ H2O [low solute]>[high solute]. 3)Facilitated diff.= simple diff. if imperm. to mem. Requires a transmembrane protein: A)Carrier= 1 side open at a time (like revolving door) in Occluded State (=both sides closed). B)Channel= tunnel w/ both sides open or closed. Active transport= +ΔG (nonspontaneous + energy required).