A typical 19th century phrenology chart: In the 1820s, phrenologists claimed the mind was located in areas of the brain, and were attacked for doubting that mind came from the nonmaterial soul. Their idea of reading “bumps” in the skull to predict personality traits was later discredited. Phrenology was first called a pseudoscience in 1843 and continues to be considered so.
An illustration from Vaught’s Practical Character Reader, a book on phrenology by L. A. Vaught published in 1902. See many more images from the book here: http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/03/19/phrenology-diagrams-from-vaughts-practical-character-reader-1902/