Library of Alexandria
Ancient sources differ widely on who is responsible for the destruction and when it occurred. The Library at Alexandria may have suffered several fires or acts of destruction over many years. Possible occasions for the partial or complete destruction of the Library of Alexandria include a fire set by Julius Caesar in 48 BC, an attack by Aurelian in the 270s AD, the decree of Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391, and the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 642.
The original library at Alexandria was also one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. Founded by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, built and enlarged by Ptolemy I, Alexander's successor, the city's library comprised perhaps as many as 1,000,000 manuscripts - the whole corpus of knowledge accumulated by ancient philosophers,scientists and poets, all contained in a building thought by the ancients to have been of surpassing beauty
Remains of the Pergamum Library, which was home to a library housing approximately 200,000 volumes, according to the writings of Plutarch. Built by Eumenes II and situated at the northern end of the Acropolis, it became one of the most important ancient libraries. Legend has it that Mark Antony later gave Cleopatra all of the 200,000 volumes at Pergamum for the Library at Alexandria as a wedding present, emptying the shelves and ending the dominance of the Library at Pergamum.
Sapho's writings are said to have filled nine papyrus rolls in the great library at Alexandria, but only one poem survives complete. This new translation of all of Sappho's extant poetry showcases the wide variety of themes in her work, from amorous songs celebrating adolescent females to poems of invocation, desire, spite, celebration, resignation, and remembrance.
Ancient Alexandria. The Library at Alexandria was in charge of collecting all the world's knowledge, and most of the staff was occupied with the task of translating works onto papyrus paper. It did so through an aggressive and well-funded royal mandate involving trips to the book fairs of Rhodes and Athens. According to Galen, any books found on ships that came into port were taken to the library, and were listed as "books of the ships".
Lost for 1600 years the fabled city of Alexandria was lost – until just 16 years ago. The famed stage of historic interactions between Cleopatra, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony and Octavius was lost under the water. The royal residences, as archeologists discovered, were slowly sent to the bottom of the sea after a series of earthquakes and tsunamis. The ancient Alexandria had over 500,000 residents and was known for its library with over 700,000 scrolls.