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<div>Pure gold is soft and is usually alloyed with other metals, such as silver, copper, platinum or palladium, to increase its strength. Gold alloys are used to make jewelry, decorative items, dental fillings and coins. Gold is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and does not tarnish when it is exposed to the air, so it can be used to make electrical connectors and printed circuit boards. </div><div>

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<p>In mineralogy, diamond is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest…

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The taaffeite gemstone (pronounced TAR-fight) is purple to red and was first discovered in 1945. Count Edward Taaffe bought a set of spinels and noticed something odd about one of them: the gemstone displayed double refraction, while a spinel does not. Taaffeite was thus the only gemstone that was first identified through a faceted gemstone. <div>

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William Hyde Wollaston (who also discovered palladium, which doesn't appear on this list of most expensive substances), an English chemist, discovered rhodium in crude platinum ore. <div>Though the name comes from the Greek word for "red", there's nothing red about it. It is a strong, hard metal, and is often used to improve the hardness and conductivity of other metals.</div><div>

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Heroin is processed from morphine, which in turn comes from the poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Street names for heroin include "smack," "H," "skag," and "junk." <div>

Painite, which is named after its 1950s discoverer, Arthur C.D. Pain, is so rare that most people do not know what it is. Until recently, only a very small number of stones were considered large and clear enough to be worth cutting into gemstones. More recently, additional sources have been found, but it is still incredibly rare.<div><div>

<p>Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, is the most expensive drug on the list. A very strong, mood-altering hallucinogen, its price per gram is only mitigated (for users) by its incredibly small dosage (measured in millionths of grams). </p><p>Its effects are unpredictable, and depend on everything from the person's expectations to their surroundings to how they react to the experience itself.</p><p>Attached to this learning is a 45-minute video documentary on the uses and…

<p>Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, is the most expensive drug on the list. A very strong, mood-altering hallucinogen, its price per gram is only mitigated (for users) by its incredibly small dosage (measured in millionths of grams). </p><p>Its effects are unpredictable, and depend on everything from the person's expectations to their surroundings to how they react to the experience itself.</p><p>Attached to this learning is a 45-minute video documentary on the uses and…

Californium-252 is a rare radioactive isotope used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, and for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses include neutron radiography, reactor start-up sources, cancer treatment, and calibration standards. <div>

Heroin is processed from morphine, which in turn comes from the poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder. Street names for heroin include "smack," "H," "skag," and "junk." <div>