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Protein Synthesis DNA not only serves as a template for its own replication, but is also a template for RNA formation. Protein synthesis requires two steps, called transcription and translation. During transcription, an mRNA molecule is produced, and during translation, this mRNA specifies the order of amino acids in a particular polypeptide (Fig. 3.13). A gene (i.e., DNA) contains coded information for the sequence of amino acids in a particular polypeptide.