Cynocepali (pictured in a manuscript) which had the heads of dogs, struck fear into medieval soldiers. ‘They were the most popular monstrous races that allegedly inhabited the edge of the world,’ Kempf and Gilbert wrote

Cynocepali (pictured in a manuscript) which had the heads of dogs, struck fear into medieval soldiers. ‘They were the most popular monstrous races that allegedly inhabited the edge of the world,’ Kempf and Gilbert wrote

Monsters thought to be living in far flung parts of the world in the Middle Ages were often characterised by physical deformities such as extra or missing limbs. This image shows religious men driving devil-like animals away from civilisation

Monsters thought to be living in far flung parts of the world in the Middle Ages were often characterised by physical deformities such as extra or missing limbs. This image shows religious men driving devil-like animals away from civilisation

Some of the monsters were harmless, such as the Blemmyae (illustrated) which were drawn as headless figures whose mouth and eyes were stuck in their chests. At times the Blemmyae are depicted in an almost comical way, grinning and smiling, as if to ridicule their deformed bodies even more, the authors said

Some of the monsters were harmless, such as the Blemmyae (illustrated) which were drawn as headless figures whose mouth and eyes were stuck in their chests. At times the Blemmyae are depicted in an almost comical way, grinning and smiling, as if to ridicule their deformed bodies even more, the authors said

The British Library, Lansdowne 451, detail of f.6 (rabbit baker). Pontifical; Tabula. England,  1st quarter of the 15th century

The British Library, Lansdowne 451, detail of f.6 (rabbit baker). Pontifical; Tabula. England, 1st quarter of the 15th century

Illuminated monsters in the margins of the Luttrell Psalter, Add 42130 f.197r, c.1325-1335

Illuminated monsters in the margins of the Luttrell Psalter, Add 42130 f.197r, c.1325-1335

another fleur-de-lys issuant from a pair of bendlets!    Cod. Pal. germ. 848: Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Codex Manesse) (Zürich, ca. 1300 bis ca. 1340) (Cod. Pal. germ. 848)

another fleur-de-lys issuant from a pair of bendlets! Cod. Pal. germ. 848: Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Codex Manesse) (Zürich, ca. 1300 bis ca. 1340) (Cod. Pal. germ. 848)

Mughal minature, Google Image Result for http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/PeafowlBaburnama.jpg

Mughal minature, Google Image Result for http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/PeafowlBaburnama.jpg

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