Karl Marx (1818-1883) Click on this image to find a short stand up act from George Carlin that works well to begin a discussion on Marx's concept of ideology, or as he put it, that "the ideas of the ruling class R in every epoch the ruling ideas." For Marx, these ruling ideas obscure the structural violence & exploitation used to keep oppressed groups in their place. Carlin is expressing this idea when he notes that "it's called the American Dream because you have to be asleep to believe it"
Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist & philosopher. He pioneered investigative frameworks & concepts such as cultural, social & symbolic capital, & habitus, field, & symbolic violence. [click on this image to find a short video & analysis of Bourdieu's concept of habitus]