1862 President Lincoln was warned of corruption in MN Indian Agencies. The president, consumed by the battle to preserve the Union, ignored the warning. When the U.S.-Dakota War broke out eight months later, Lincoln told Gov. Alexander Ramsey, “Attend to the Indians… Necessity has no law.” The aftermath—U.S. victory, Dakota internment, the largest mass hanging in American history, and the forced removal of the Dakota, tragically altering the lives of Dakota people for generations to come.

1862 President Lincoln was warned of corruption in MN Indian Agencies. The president, consumed by the battle to preserve the Union, ignored the warning. When the U.S.-Dakota War broke out eight months later, Lincoln told Gov. Alexander Ramsey, “Attend to the Indians… Necessity has no law.” The aftermath—U.S. victory, Dakota internment, the largest mass hanging in American history, and the forced removal of the Dakota, tragically altering the lives of Dakota people for generations to come.

The three women pictured in this incredible photograph from 1885 -- Anandibai Joshi of India, Keiko Okami of Japan, and Sabat Islambouli of Syria -- each became the first licensed female doctors in their respective countries. The three were students at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania; one of the only places in the world at the time where women could study medicine.

The three women pictured in this incredible photograph from 1885 -- Anandibai Joshi of India, Keiko Okami of Japan, and Sabat Islambouli of Syria -- each became the first licensed female doctors in their respective countries. The three were students at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania; one of the only places in the world at the time where women could study medicine.

A forgotten profession: In the days before alarm clocks were widely affordable, people like Mary Smith of Brenton Street were employed to rouse sleeping people in the early hours of the morning. They were commonly known as knocker-ups or knocker-uppers. Mrs. Smith was paid sixpence a week to shoot dried peas at market workers windows in Limehouse Fields, London. Photograph from Philip Davies Lost London: 1870-1945.

A forgotten profession: In the days before alarm clocks were widely affordable, people like Mary Smith of Brenton Street were employed to rouse sleeping people in the early hours of the morning. They were commonly known as knocker-ups or knocker-uppers. Mrs. Smith was paid sixpence a week to shoot dried peas at market workers windows in Limehouse Fields, London. Photograph from Philip Davies Lost London: 1870-1945.

Even before blacks were officially recognized as federal soldiers, many slaves like Nick Biddle escaped and joined Union lines. In 1861, he wore a uniform, traveled with his employee’s company to Baltimore to help protect Washington, D.C., after the surrender of Fort Sumter. Once there, he was set upon by a pro-Confederate mob, attacked with slurs and a brick that hit him in the head so severely it exposed his skull. Some consider him the first man wounded in the Civil War.

Even before blacks were officially recognized as federal soldiers, many slaves like Nick Biddle escaped and joined Union lines. In 1861, he wore a uniform, traveled with his employee’s company to Baltimore to help protect Washington, D.C., after the surrender of Fort Sumter. Once there, he was set upon by a pro-Confederate mob, attacked with slurs and a brick that hit him in the head so severely it exposed his skull. Some consider him the first man wounded in the Civil War.

Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts regiment in the American Civil War. He was killed leading the attack on Fort Wagner in 1863.

Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the all-black 54th Massachusetts regiment in the American Civil War. He was killed leading the attack on Fort Wagner in 1863.

The Dakota War of 1862, also known as the Sioux Uprising, (and the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U.S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War) was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of the eastern Sioux (also known as eastern Dakota). It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota. It ended with a mass execution of 38 Dakota men on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota.

The Dakota War of 1862, also known as the Sioux Uprising, (and the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U.S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War) was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of the eastern Sioux (also known as eastern Dakota). It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota. It ended with a mass execution of 38 Dakota men on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota.

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