Sheikh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sheikh is a word of Arabic origin that literally means "elder," and is commonly used to refer to leaders of a tribe. It also means a man over 40 years old. Sheikha is the female version of the word.
In irrigation techniques and underground wells they built dams, reservoirs, and aqueducts. They also put water wheels in. Underground wells were placed to keep the water that was lost to a minimum. The Muslim people depended on these techniques.
A Muslim physicist born in A. Alhazen pioneered experimental physics, founded the modern scientific understanding of optics, and invented the camera obscura--a device for projecting images--as shown in this illustration.