Dividing cells are prone to errors, and so they must be prepared to summon sophisticated emergency systems to deal with potential damage. One type of division-derailing mishap can occur when assault by certain chemicals causes two strands of DNA to permanently connect when they shouldn’t, in what scientists call interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Properly fixing these crosslinks is crucial to preventing cancer, maintaining tissues, and fertility. To better understand how a cell finds and fixes…
New strategy sees therapy ‘stiffening’ cancer cells and limiting mobility.
The mammalian target of rapamycin, a drug originally developed to prevent immunosuppression, is mTOR. mTOR is one of the most critical proteins in the control of cell proliferation, including cancer. For decades scientists have been researching mTOR to gain a thorough understanding of exactly how it regulates such an essential cell function that impacts metabolism, growth, protein and organelle recycling (autophagy), proliferation, and survival. Now, a new study from researchers at Sanford…
Researchers have discovered a new pathway in stem cell differentiation.
Stem cells, which have the potential to turn into any kind of cell, offer the tantalizing possibility of generating new tissues for organ replacements, stroke victims and patients of many other diseases. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute have uncovered details about stem cell growth that could help improve regenerative therapies. While previous studies have shown that two key cellular processes, called Wnt and Activin, were needed for stem cells to grow into specific mature cells, no one…
Previously unknown cell-death pathway mapped in leukemia cells.
Cell Biology, Stem Cells, Genetics, Pathways, Cancer, Death
Study finds that blood vessel lining cells involved in the control of cancer metastasis.
Blood Vessels, Cancer
Researchers identify protein responsible for DNA repair at a stem cell level.
A protein that helps embryonic stem cells retain their identity also promotes DNA repair. The findings raise the possibility that the protein, Sall4, performs a similar role in cancer cells, helping them fix DNA damage to survive chemotherapy. Fixing broken DNA is particularly important for embryonic stem cells because they will pass on any mutations to their differentiated descendants.