The saddleback caterpillar (Acharia stimulea, formerly Sibine stimulea) looks like a colorful cross between a Chinese parade dragon and a Scottish terrier. It's the larva of the saddleback caterpillar moth and is native to eastern North America.
mirkokosmos: This is the caterpillar of the Pink Underwing Moth and is commonly referred to as the Skull Caterpillar. It is found in certain regions of Australia and is listed as endangered. As an adult moth, it will have a wingspan up to 170 mm.