About once every 7,000 years, a mutation known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurs on the Y chromosome. The known rate of mutation has allowed scientists to trace migration routes of early humans out of Africa.
The Y Chromosome: Ancestry, Genetics, and the Making of a Man
Haplogroup F (Y-DNA). Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and previously as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup. The clade and its subclades constitute over 90% of paternal lineages outside of Africa. The possible place of origin is South Asia.
Ireland has one of the oldest systems of patri- lineal hereditary surnames in the world. Using the paternal co-inheritance of Y-chromosome DNA and Irish surnames, we examined the extent to which modern surname groups share a common male-line ancestor and the general applicability of Y-chromosomes in uncov- ering surname origins and histories. DNA samples were collected from 1,125 men, bearing 43 different surnames, and each was genotyped for 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci.