In 1976, American scientists discovered that sugar attaches to red blood cells (hemoglobin) and that this could be used to determine how well blood glucose had been controlled in the previous two to four months. This discovery led to the creation of the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test
The 1970s welcomed new diagnostic and delivery methods, such as the first blood-glucose meters and portable insulin pumps. By the early 1980s, researchers in California, using recombinant DNA technology had figured out how to trick E. coli bacteria into producing human insulin. In 1983, the first biosynthetic human insulin was introduced to rave reviews
In 1923, the Nobel Prize was awarded for discovery of insulin, but only to Banting and MacLeod, who shared their portions of the prize with Best and Collip, respectively. The new proposed antidiabetic substance was named by Banting “isletin.” The name was later changed by MacLeod to “insulin.”
In 1966, University of Minnesota surgeons performed the first cadaver pancreas transplant. Attempts at bringing down the body weights of obese Type 2 patients was heightened by Edward Mason and Chikashi Ito in 1967 when they developed a gastric bypass procedure which resulted in minimal complications . In 1972, Paul Lacy and coworkers published the paper on methods of isolation of intact pancreatic islet cells. First attempts at islet cell transplants were performed in animals
The 1970s and 1980s marked are a turning point in the treatment of diabetes. Innovations such as blood glucose readers and strips measuring blood glucose (sugar) levels gave people with diabetes and their doctors some indispensable tools.
The important elements of current understanding of diabetes mellitus can be traced to nineteenth century when modern scientific disciplines, including biochemistry and experimental physiology, acquired prominence in biological studies. In 1815, Eugene Chevreul in Paris proved that the sugar in urine of individuals with diabetes was glucose. Von Fehling developed quantitative test for glucose in urine in 1848