Brain pathways are affected by drugs of abuse. The dopamine and serotonin pathways are two brain systems affected by drugs of abuse. They are illustrated here. By altering activity in these pathways, abused substances can influence their function. Dopamine neurons (shown in yellow) influence pleasure, motivation, motor function and saliency of stimuli or events. Serotonin (shown in red) plays a role in learning, memory, sleep and mood.
Here are tips on how to handle a panic attack - from Jodi Aman, author of the Anxiety-Schmanxiety blog. Did you know 6 million, 2.7% of Americans, have Panic Disorder. Women are twice as likely to be affected as men. Panic Disorder has a very high comorbidity rate with major depression.