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Sixth Form RevisionAS and A-Level P.E. Monday 14th March Miss Bowe Objectives Starter - Taboo Recap the conduction system of the heart Complete an exam.

Potassium is a positive ion found inside the cells. Normal levels are essential in regulating electrical conduction in the muscles. A decrease is hypokalemia, symptoms like dysrhythmias, weakness, decreased reflexes and ECG changes. An increase is hyperkalemia, symptoms like increased irritability, diarrhea and ECG changes. Levels should be monitored for people with renal failure, diabetes, burns and electrolyte imbalance. Pts on diuretics and digitalis should be monitored for level changes.

Hypokalemia is a condition of below normal levels of potassium in the blood serum. Potassium, a necessary electrolyte, facilitates nerve impulse conduction and the contraction of skeletal and smooth muscles, including the heart. It also facilitates cell membrane function and proper enzyme activity.

Calcitonin Calcium (Ca2+) plays a significant role in both nervous conduction and muscle contraction. It is also necessary for coagulation (clotting) of blood. The blood calcium level is regulated in part by calcitonin, a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland when the blood calcium level rises (Fig. 10.7).

Ultrasound is a physical medicine treatment for tendon and ligament injuries. It helps control pain by sedating nerve endings. Pain is diminished by decreasing local sensory nerve conduction velocity, and inducing the systemic release of endorphins, enkephalins, and serotonin. High serotonin levels help diminish pain sensations all over the body.