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1981 - Nicolaas Bloembergen - Born Dordrecht, the Netherlands - Affiliation: Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA - "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" - Field: optical physics, quantum electrodynamics. Source nobelprize.org

Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981 Born: 11 March 1920, Dordrecht, the Netherlands Affiliation at the time of the award: Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA Prize motivation: "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" Field: Optical physics, quantum electrodynamics

2005 - Theodor W. Hänsch - Born Heidelberg, Germany - Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany, Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität, Munich, Germany - "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" - Field: atomic physics. One of his students, Carl E. Wieman, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001. Source nobelprize.org

John L. Hall 2005 Born: 21 August 1934, Denver, CO, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO, USA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA Prize motivation: "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" Field: Atomic physics

Arthur Leonard Schawlow 1981 Born: 5 May 1921, Mount Verno, NY, USA Died: 28 April 1999, Palo Alto, CF, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Prize motivation: "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" Field: Optical physics, quantum electrodynamics

1914 - Max von Laue – Germany - "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[21] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy”. In addition to contributions in optics, crystallography, quantum theory, superconductivity and the theory of relativity, he guided German scientific research for four decades, was a strong objector to National Socialism and was instrumental in re-establishing German science after World War II. Source Wikipedia.

Richard Feynman talks about light, in a way that will make you excited about photons. The man should have been a high school teacher.

Max Planck (858–1947) suggested that energy was absorbed in discrete packets rather than across a continuous spectrum of frequencies (E=hv).

Igor Tamm (1895-1971) | Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (with Pavel Cherenkov and Ilya Frank) in 1958 "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" | Birthplace: Vladivostok, Russia