Circassian woman. Unknown photographer, circa 1900. Also known as “Cherkesses” or Adighe as they call themselves. Circassian women were reputed for their beauty hence favored by the Ottoman sultans as slaves and concubines in the harem.
The "mail order brides" of the American west were the "supply" that met two "demands". For the men of the west who far outnumbered women and wanted to create families, farms, towns, a mail order bride could be the solution. For young women of the eastern states who faced loneliness, poverty, and the social stigma of spinsterhood if they didn't marry, being a mail order bride could offer social economic opportunity.
A 'hidden mother' photograph. In the Victorian Era, women holding infants were often covered because the photograph is meant to be cropped and framed to show only the infant. The original photograph is creepy. Passport photos of infants are still taken this way in some countries.
Luxe Studio, Turkey, c. 1927 (junkshopsnapshots.blogspot.com). Not much is known about this image from the early Republican era in Turkey except that it was printed as a picture postcard at a Turkish photo studio. The woman on the right is wearing what appears to be a military or aviator’s uniform. During this period, there was a push towards building a “military nation” in which women were to theoretically also be active participants.