Clara Barton and a circle of acquaintances founded the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1881. Barton first heard of the Swiss-inspired International Red Cross Movement while visiting Europe following the Civil War. Returning home, she campaigned for an American Red Cross society and for ratification of the Geneva Convention protecting the war-injured, which the United States ratified in 1882.
A detail of a circa 1885 lithograph by former Andersonville prisoner Thomas O’Dea, a veteran of the 16th and 20th Maine infantries, depicts the five stages of sickness and disease: (1) Scurvy, (2) Diarrhea, (3) Gangrene, (4) Dropsy and (5) Fever.
"Wasted Gallantry", by Captain James Hope. This painting shows the gallant but futile charge by the 7th Maine Infantry. Several hours after the fighting had ended at Bloody Lane, a Union officer ordered Major Thomas Hyde to advance his men through the Piper cornfield and attack. The men from Maine faced a galling fire from the Confederate infantry and artillery. In 20 minutes, this regiment suffered more than 50% casualties, yet the charge did nothing to advance the Union plan of attack.