Commentary on the Apocalypse (Commentaria In Apocalypsin) was written in Spain by Beatus of Liébana in the 8th century. There are about thirty extant copies of the commentary in illuminated manuscript format, the earliest being from the 9th century. One of the later versions is the Rylands Beatus from the 12th century, owned by the John Rylands Library at the University of Manchester : from which the above images were sourced http://bibliodyssey.blogspot.com.es/2010/10/beatus-apocalypse.html
Astronomicum Caesareum, May 1540. Michael Ostendorfer / Hand-colored woodcuts / This most sumptuous of all Renaissance instructive manuals explained the use of the astrolabe (for calculating the altitude of stars) and other instruments used for computing planetary positions.
Hans Baldung (called Hans Baldung Grien) (German, 1484/85–1545). Witches' Sabbath, 1510. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1917 (17.50.46). #witches #Halloween
Lunar phases are the result of looking at the illuminated half of the Moon from different viewing geometries; they are not caused by the shadow of the Earth or umbra falling on the Moon's surface (this occurs only during a lunar eclipse).
Alchimia, the spirit of AlchemyA fantastic 11x14 inch art print of Alchimia, the spirit of alchemy depicted as a woman working in her kitchen workshop. This is based on a wonderful illustration from an old Italian book of alchemist distillation techniques.