Muslims dominated the Songhay Kingdom and had a capitol at Gao. Muslims spread influences even to regions without Islamic states. The first muslin ruler of Kano made the Hausa city a center of Muslim learning.
The Fulani War of 1804–1808 was a military tragedy in what is today Nigeria and Cameroon. The war began when Usman dan Fodio, a prominent Islamic scholar and teacher, was exiled from the Hausa city-state of Gobir by King Yunfa, one of his former students. Usman dan Fodio assembled a Fulani army to lead in jihad against the Hausa kingdoms. The forces of Usman dan Fodio slowly took over more and more of the Hausa kingdoms, capturing Gobir in 1808 and executing Yunfa.