Inside pages of the passport (No. 4), showing the letter J (Jude) and the name "Israel", 1938 In August 1938, the German authorities decreed that Jewish men and women with first names of "non-Jewish" origin had to add "Israel" and "Sara" respectively to their names. All Jews had to carry identity cards indicating their Jewish origin, and, in the autumn of 1938, all Jewish passports were stamped with an identifying letter "J".
Passport issued to a Sephardi Jew by the Spanish consulate in Sofia, Bulgaria 1943 Passport issued to a Bulgarian Jew of Sephardi origin and his wife, containing Turkish and British visas which allowed them to reach Mandatory Palestine via Istanbul in the middle of World War II, despite the British policy restricting Jewish immigration. Issued on 20 January 1943.
Identity card of an inmate of the Hohne D.P. camp, a survivor of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945 Former inmates of the Bergen-Belsen camp were held in a nearby D.P camp in the British occupation zone which was renamed by the British Hohne camp. Issued on 24 October 1945.
A file photo shows a Jewish refugee's "residence permits". The archive that documents Jewish refugees' life in Shanghai during World War II is prepared to apply for national archival document heritage.