Explore Nursing Cheat Sheet, Ultrasound, and more!

WK 5 SPLEEN PATHOLOGY Portal Hypertension–Collaterals. The spleen (S) is massively enlarged, and a markedly dilated and tortuous porto-systemic collateral vein (arrow) is seen in the splenic hilum.

Abdomen Ultrasound Imaging Technique The abdomen is examined with sector or curved array transducers using frequencies of to MHz. The highest frequency that allows adequate penetration is …

WK 2 LIVER PATHOLOGY Portal Vein Thrombosis

Abdomen and retroperitoneum

The triangular cord sign is a triangular or tubular echogenic cord of fibrous tissue seen in the porta hepatis at ultrasonography and is relatively specific in the diagnosis of  biliary atresia  This sign is useful in the evaluation of infants with cholestatic jaundice, helping for the differential diagnosis of biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis.  It is defined as more than 4 mm thickness of the echogenic anterior wall of the right portal vein (EARPV) .  http://radiopaedia.org/article

Triangular cord sign represents the fibrous ductal remnant of the extrahepatic bile duct in biliary atresia. The objective criterion for positive triangular cord sign has been described as 4 mm thickness or more of the echogenicity along anterior.

The most important confirmatory test is an ultrasound scan. US confirm gallstones, showing thickening and oedema of the gallbladder wall and localise the tender spot to the gallbladder itself. It can also exclude dilatation of the common bile duct and other pathology, such as liver masses.

Topic today will be about Biliary tract GALLSTONES Gallstones are very common topic and are therefore frequently aske d in the exams.

Cysts may be colloid (hyperplastic or adenomatous), simple or hemorrhagic in nature. On sonography, cystic areas may contain either serous fluid or colloid; old hemorrhage and resultant echogenic fluid may also be noted. Punctuate highly echogenic foci with ring-down artifact (see below image from Ultrasound Clinics Apr 2009) represent colloid crystals within colloid cysts. If residual strands of thyroid tissue remain within the cystic areas, a characteristic honeycomb appearance may result…

Cysts may be colloid (hyperplastic or adenomatous), simple or hemorrhagic in nature. On sonography, cystic areas may contain either serous fluid or colloid; old hemorrhage and resultant echogenic fluid may also be noted. Punctuate highly echogenic foci with ring-down artifact (see below image from Ultrasound Clinics Apr 2009) represent colloid crystals within colloid cysts. If residual strands of thyroid tissue remain within the cystic areas, a characteristic honeycomb appearance may result…

Hepatic Adenoma- associated with oral contraceptive use, & type 1 glycogen storage disease (Von Gerke). Appears as a solid, slightly hypoecohic mass. May demonstrate hemorrhage/ necrosis.

The hyperechoic are has poor thru transmission. Hepatic Adenoma- associated with oral contraceptive use, & type 1 glycogen storage disease (Von Gerke). Appears as a solid, slightly hypoecohic mass. May demonstrate hemorrhage/ necrosis.

WK 5 SPLEEN PATHOLOGY Splenic and liver metastases with a hyperechoic mass in the hilum of the spleen

WK 5 SPLEEN PATHOLOGY Splenic and liver metastases with a hyperechoic mass in the hilum of the spleen

WK 7 RENAL PATHOLOGY Renal and pelvic stones

Urinary Tract and male reproductive system

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