Mabel Williams, who with her husband Robert F. Williams called for armed self-defense against racist violence in Jim Crow North Carolina and lived in exile in Cuba and China for a time because of it, died on April She was
Richard Aoki ( 20 November 1938 – 15 March 2009) was an American civil rights activist. He was one of the first members of the Black Panther Party and was eventually promoted to the position of "Field Marshall" Although there were several Asian Americans in the Black Panther Party, Aoki was the only one to have a formal leadership position. Aoki was born in San Leandro, CA. in 1938 to Japanese parents. He and his family were interned at the Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah from 1942-1945.