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The Convention of Kütahya, also known as the Peace Agreement of Kütahya, ended the Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833) in May 1833. The Convention of Kütahya (1833) that had awarded the Ottomans’ Syrian provinces and Adana to Muḥammad ʿAlī was not satisfactory to either party, and a new war developed. The Ottoman army was decisively defeated at Nizip by Egyptian forces under Muḥammad ʿAlī’s son Ibrāhīm, and the Ottoman fleet surrendered at Alexandria.

The Convention of Kütahya, also known as the Peace Agreement of Kütahya, ended the Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833) in May 1833. The Convention of Kütahya (1833) that had awarded the Ottomans’ Syrian provinces and Adana to Muḥammad ʿAlī was not satisfactory to either party, and a new war developed. The Ottoman army was decisively defeated at Nizip by Egyptian forces under Muḥammad ʿAlī’s son Ibrāhīm, and the Ottoman fleet surrendered at Alexandria.

Şehzade (Prince) Mahmud Celaleddin (1862-1888), a son of Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz, (r: 1861-1876).  The portrait was made in 1869.

Şehzade (Prince) Mahmud Celaleddin (1862-1888), a son of Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz, (r: 1861-1876). The portrait was made in 1869.

The most populous Kurdish community is in Turkey — about 13 million. There's between seven or eight million in Iran, about five million in Iraq, and somewhere between 2 and 2.5 million in Syria. These large numbers, together with a distinct sense of Kurdish ethnic and national identity, make the Kurds really important players in the region and especially in northern Iraq. Complicating the picture has been the substantial Kurdish population living in Northern Iraq and Syria. As early as 1919…

The most populous Kurdish community is in Turkey — about 13 million. There's between seven or eight million in Iran, about five million in Iraq, and somewhere between 2 and 2.5 million in Syria. These large numbers, together with a distinct sense of Kurdish ethnic and national identity, make the Kurds really important players in the region and especially in northern Iraq. Complicating the picture has been the substantial Kurdish population living in Northern Iraq and Syria. As early as 1919…

Map: Sephardic migrations to Ottoman Empire from Haim Beinart’s Atlas -150,000 Jews known as Sephardim were stripped of their possessions during the Spanish Inquisition and kicked out of the Spain. Some 100,000 of these refugees were welcomed to Istanbul by the Ottoman Sultan Bayazit II, who dispatched the Ottoman navy to rescue many Jews.  "The exiled Sephardim," wrote journalist Melanie Menagh, "brought with them the glories of Spain's golden age and made major contributions to Turkish…

Map: Sephardic migrations to Ottoman Empire from Haim Beinart’s Atlas -150,000 Jews known as Sephardim were stripped of their possessions during the Spanish Inquisition and kicked out of the Spain. Some 100,000 of these refugees were welcomed to Istanbul by the Ottoman Sultan Bayazit II, who dispatched the Ottoman navy to rescue many Jews. "The exiled Sephardim," wrote journalist Melanie Menagh, "brought with them the glories of Spain's golden age and made major contributions to Turkish…

The Turkish National Liberation War was an effort to create a new state from the ruins of an Empire, which had completed its life. It lasted four years (1919-1922) wherein a small army of volunteers fought and won a war against the leading powers of this time. Ataturk's victory was not only military, but it was also diplomatic. The Turkish military victory was sealed with a diplomatic success with the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty on July 24, 1923. Signed with Great Britain, France…

The Turkish National Liberation War was an effort to create a new state from the ruins of an Empire, which had completed its life. It lasted four years (1919-1922) wherein a small army of volunteers fought and won a war against the leading powers of this time. Ataturk's victory was not only military, but it was also diplomatic. The Turkish military victory was sealed with a diplomatic success with the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty on July 24, 1923. Signed with Great Britain, France…

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