Harvard Business School professor James Heskett says culture is set by the leaders of an institution, the chief executive and board, and represents the values of the organisation. But he adds that those values are meaningless without behaviours, measures and actions to support them. He says strong adaptive cultures foster innovation, productivity and a sense of ownership among employees and customers, and most importantly, outlast leaders. In his book The Culture Cycle: How to Shape the Unseen Force that Transforms Performance, he argues that as much as half of the difference in operating profit between an organisation can be attributed to effective cultures. Why? Because you end up with greater staff retention, which reduces the cost of recruiting and training, higher employee productivity, which means more sales, and better customer relationships, which leads to greater loyalty and more sales.