Latin inscription “Oil of Earthworms”. Preparation for treatment was as follows: ½ lb (0.2 kg) of earth-worms, 2 lb (0.9 kg) of olive oil and 2 oz (57g) of wine,boil together until wine has evaporated. Store for later use. According to the pharmacists of the day, oil of earthworm was a pain reliever, especially for aching joints, and was also recommended for arthritis, rickets and cramp. The oil was probably rubbed on to the skin. Place made: Abruzzi, Italy, 1731-1770.