Construction & Civil Engineering

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four different types of chains and other metal objects on a wooden floor with text describing them
Tape Corrections in Chain Surveying
Surveying is often required in any field of engineering, civil is no different. Here, our main focus will be on chain surveying. This is a very old and simple method. This chain method is performed by a use of tape and it is expected to have errors due to incorrect tape measurements.
several pictures of different types of houses and buildings with text overlay that reads low cost building materials towards aflorable housing
Free Markets, Advantages and Disadvantages in Economics
Free enterprise, or the free market, refers to an economy where the market determines prices, products, and services rather than the government. Businesses and services are free of government control. Alternatively, free enterprise could refer to an ideological or legal system whereby commercial activities are primarily regulated through private measures.
the construction process is being performed to build a concrete structure and then it's made from steel bars
How to Make Column Stirrups in 4 Easy Steps
Two types of bars are found in an RCC column. The longitudinal bar is one, and the horizontal bar is the other. Stirrups and ties are used as horizontal bars. Construction is another area where stirrup holds some other names, reinforcements such as rings and shears. Stirrups for a column are made by calculating the length of the bar for the stirrup, determining how many stirrups to use, and determining how big the stirrup should be.
the drawing shows how to draw an object with different angles and measurements, as well as details
Design of Reinforced Concrete T Beam
T beam bears the load of the whole structure of reinforced concrete. It is a T shaped cross section structure. The slab which is around the beam is called a flange. Isolated Beams In this kind of beam the flange is used to provide compression area the thickness of flange should be greater than 1/2bw, and width should be less than or equal to 4bw.
a whiteboard with some writing on it
How to calculate the quantities for steel, cement, sand & aggregates in a flat slab
This construction video tutorial will produce some useful tips on how to find out bar bending schedule of flat plate slab as well as work out the quantities of different materials like steel, cement, sand & aggregates inside a slab.
construction workers are working on the road
A few safety measures for road construction
If construction work wasn't perilous enough, employees have been involved in considerably more danger at road maintenance and building sites near traffic. Road work zones are hazardous areas where vehicle traffic and road workers must share space. When an accident occurs, the driver is typically at fault, but the worker nearly invariably suffers the most serious injuries.
several pictures of the inside of a building being constructed with concrete and cement mortars
How to prevent segregation of concrete
Definition of Segregation of Concrete? Major components of concrete are cement, sand, aggregate, and water. Normally, a coating is made to concrete aggregate with cement and sand for developing the consistent mass disjointing of these constituent materials of concrete from each other. It is known as segregation of concrete.
the diagram shows different stages of construction
Ensuring Safety amidst Seismic Risks
India is a region prone to seismic activity, with several parts of the country lying in high seismic zones. The frequency and intensity of earthquakes pose significant challenges to the safety and stability of structures. In light of these risks, implementing earthquake-resistant design guidelines is crucial to mitigate potential damage and safeguard human lives.
several pictures of different types of bricks being built
Porotherm Bricks : Properties, Advantages and Applications
Porotherm clay bricks are special type of bricks made using natural clay, coal ash, rice husk, and granite slurry. Apart from the common size 400x200x200mm, they come in various sizes. They help in providing walling system which aids in thermal insulation resulting in cooler interiors in hot summer and warm interior in cold seasons. These clays apart from being environmentally friendly, they are economical and easy to use.
an image of a house with all the components labeled in this diagram, including water heaters and air conditioning
Details of earthing system in building construction
In electricity supply systems, an earthing system or grounding system is circuitry that attaches the segments of the electric circuit with the ground and determines the electric potential of the conductors corresponding to the earth?s conductive surface.
a large white house sitting on top of a lush green field
Sell Quality Home plans for Generations with Architectural Designs
Builders, homeowners, and architects turn to us with unmatched expertise in finding designs that suit their needs and budgets.
a man is touching the ground with his hand
Why water cement ratio is vital in concrete mix?
In concrete there are different types of materials like cement, sand, Coarse aggregate and water which are combined in exact ratios. This ratio is provided at either as a nominal mix or by design mix.
the diagram shows how to use rectangler columns for flooring and other surfaces
Rectangular Column Footing: A Short Guide to Design
Being a vertical support structure, columns need proper footing that disperse the load of the column and the supported superstructure. For this, each column needs a dedicated or shared supporting foundation structure located below ground level; this is called a Footing.
two pictures side by side, one with concrete and the other with wood
Estimation and calculation of concrete volume for Building footings
To analyse the footings of a building one need to calculate the concrete volume first. Whether you are charting to cast the footings manually or you are using a ready mix concrete, the first and the foremost task one needs to know the physical volume of the apartment or building. Once the project plan is strategized and the concrete volume is detected, the extra materials for footing casting can be cut out.
two men are working on the foundation of a building that's being built in progress
How to resolve issues prior to foundation design
Make sure that the foundations are maintained as extremely shallow, suitable with atmospheric impacts and strength of the surface soil; specifically in flooded ground. Excavation in fatally flooded ground seems to be costly and slow.