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These are earrings from Karnataka, India from the 1800s or 1900s. They are made of gold, probably 22k, pearls, lac, which is a natural material often used to stabilize repouse, and red stones, likely rubies. The ear post is down on the body of the earrings, and the chains are brought up to hook into the hairdo. This adds beauty and offsets the weight of heavy earrings.